Summary. Statistical data of livestock for 30 years is reflected in the article. Author used the materials of the state veterinary reporting. A comparative analysis of the number, incidence and death rate of adult animals and young cattle for two five-year periods (2001-2005 and 2014-2018). the data of the analysis of veterinary statistical reports for 2018 on the specific weight of the large horned cattle and age dynamics of calves in farms of the Vologda region are shown. A significant decrease in livestock of the large horned cattle by 56.3% (from 1990 to 2018) is shown in the analysis of the data. Over the five years 2014-2018, there was a decrease in the number of the large horned cattle by 31.3%, the birth rate of calves - by 26.2%, and the incidence of calves - by 12.3% and the mortality rate decreased by 3.3%. Despite the decline in the number of livestock, in 2018 there is a high incidence of animal diseases (49.6%). The highest incidence rate was observed among calves under 10 days of age 43.3%, 31.7% - from 11 to 30 days, 15.8% - from one to three months, 6.5% - from three to six months and 2.7% - from 6 to 12 months. Of the total number of sick calves in 2018, 63.2% had gastrointestinal diseases, and death for this reason is 49.6% of the total number of victims. Respiratory diseases affect 21.8% of young animals, and death due to respiratory diseases is 18.2%. Analysis of statistical data showed that, despite the complex of veterinary and sanitary measures, the incidence and death of calves remain at a high level. This can be explained by delayed diagnosis and low therapeutic effectiveness in gastrointestinal and respiratory diseases of cattle.
Keywords: decrease in livestock, large horned cattle, calves, fertility, morbidity, mortality, diseases of gastrointestinal tract, respiratory diseases, age dynamics of mortality, proportion of mortality, statistical analysis, epizootic situation.
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Author affiliation: Badeeva Oksana B., senior scientific researcher of the Vologda branch of the Federal scientific center - All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Veterinary Medicine named after K.I. Skryabin and Ya.R. Kovalenko of the Russian Academy of Sciences; 10, Chekhova st., Vologda, 160009; phone: 8-921-8273359; e-mail: email@example.com - responsible for correspondence with the editorial board.