Mishchenko A.V., Mishchenko V.A., Karaulov A.K., Petrova O.N., Krivonos R.A., Chernykh O.Yu.
Summary. Sheep pox and goat pox are highly contagious transboundary diseases of sheep and goats caused by viruses belonging to the genus Capripoxvirus of the Poxviridae. These infections of goats are subject to mandatory notification to the OIE. Diseases cause great economic damage to sheep and goat breeding, due to the death and forced slaughter of sick animals, a decrease in productivity, the cost of conducting veterinary and sanitary, security and quarantine measures. It should also be noted social significance, since often diseased animals are the only means of subsistence for the owners. The authors carried out a retrospective analysis of the epizootic situation of sheep pox and goat pox in the Russian Federation and Mongolia. Epizootic characteristics were assessed using the OIE databases. Materials obtained by the authors during business trips, as well as information published in scientific articles were used in analyzing the data. Smallpox of sheep and goat in the Russian Federation appear as sporadic cases and mainly in the regions of the Far Eastern and Siberian federal districts, bordering with China and Mongolia. The data of the phylogenetic analysis of the causative agent that caused the outbreaks of the disease in Transbaikalia served as the basis for the conclusion that the virus was introduced from China. The results of surveys of foci of sheep pox in the Republic of Dagestan and the Republic of Kalmykia suggest the probable introduction of the pathogen from the regions of Kazakhstan that were previously unsuccessful for sheep pox. Mainly sheep pox was recorded in the Russian Federation during the analyzed period. Isolated cases of goat pox are 22 explained by the small population of these animals. Smallpox of sheep and goats are constantly reported in Central Asian countries. For the constituent entities of the North Caucasus and Southern Federal Districts, the border countries endemic for sheep pox pose a great threat.
Keywords: small horned cattle, sheep, goats, smallpox, epizootic situation, retrospective analysis, virus, epizootics, pathways and mechanisms of spread, clinical signs of the disease.
1. Aliper T.I., Sergeev V.A., Nepoklonov E.A. Virusy i virusnye vaktsiny [Viruses and viral vaccines]. - Biblionika. - Moscow, 2007. - pp. 283-291.
2. Garkin A.V. Izuchenie immunobiologicheskikh svoystv vaktsiny protiv ospy ovets i ospy koz [Study of immunobiological properties of vaccine against sheep pox and goat pox]. - Vladimir, 2007.
3. Gulenkin V.M., Petrova O.N., Diev V.I. et al. Epizooticheskaya situatsiya po ospe ovets i koz i otsenka riska vozniknoveniya vspyshki na territorii Rossiyskoy Federatsii [Epizootic situation in sheep and goat pox and assessment of the risk of an outbreak on the territory of the Russian Federation]. - Veterinariya i kormlenie. - Moscow, 2012 (4). - pp. 34-35.
4. Diev V.I., Zakharov V.I., Rakhmanov A.M. et al. Ospa ovets i koz: epizooticheskaya situatsiya i profilaktika [Smallpox of sheep and goats: an epizootic situation and prevention]. - Veterinariya. - Moscow, 2003 (11). - pp. 3-6.
5. Dresvyannikova S.G., Borovoy V.N., Kolomytsev S.A. Epizooticheskaya situatsiya po sotsialno znachimym i osobo opasnym boleznyam zhivotnykh v Rossiyskoy Federatsii za 2013 godu [Epizootic situation on socially significant and especially dangerous animal diseases in the Russian Federation in 2013]. - 2014.
6. Samuylenko A.Ya. et al. Infektsionnaya patologiya zhivotnykh [Infectious pathology of animals]. - Akademkniga. - Moscow, 2006 (1). - pp. 759-805.
7. Koshemetov Zh., Abduraimov E., Bogdanova M. et al. Monitoring po virusnym infektsiyam zhivotnykh na territorii Respubliki Tadzhikistan i Kyrgyzskoy Respubliki v 2014 godu [Monitoring of viral infections of animals on the territory of the Republic of Tajikistan and the Kyrgyz Republic in 2014]. - Vestnik KrasGAU. - Krasnoyarsk, 2016 (3). - pp. 171-179.
8. Makarov V.V. Mezhdunarodnoe epizooticheskoe byuro i spisok [OIE List]. - Rossiyskiy veterinarnyy zhurnal. - Moscow, 2017 (7). - pp. 22-25.
9. Maksyutov R.A., Gavrilova E.V., Agafonov A.P., Glotov A.G. et al. Vspyshka ospy ovets v Zabaykalskom kraye Rossii [Outbreak of sheep pox in the Trans-Baikal Territory of Russia]. - Novosibirsk, 2013: 74-76.
10. Mishchenko A.V., Mishchenko V.A., Varkentin A.V., Shevkoplyas V.N., Dzhailidi G.A., Krivonos R.A., Chernykh O.Yu. Retrospektivnyy analiz epizooticheskoy situatsii po yashchuru v Irane [Retrospective analysis of the foot-mouth-disease epizootic situation in Iran]. - Veterinaria Kubani. - Krasnodar, 2015 (2). - pp. 5-8.
11. Mishchenko A.V., Mishchenko V.A., Kononov A.V., Shevkoplyas V.N., Dzhailidi G.A., Dresvyannikova S.G., Chernykh O.Yu. Problema nodulyarnogo dermatita krupnogo rogatogo skota [Problem of lumpy skin disease in large horned cattle]. - Veterinaria Kubani. - Krasnodar, 2015 (5). - pp. 3-6.
12. Ospa ovets [Sheep smallpox]. - Istoriya veterinarii Zabaykalya. - Poisk. - Chita, 2004. - pp. 146-150.
13. Rukovodstvo po virusologii: Virusy i virusnye infektsii cheloveka i zhivotnykh [Virology Manual: Viruses and Viral Infections in Humans and Animals]. - 2013. - pp. 908-910.
14. Satorov I.T., Khukhorov I.Yu., Botaev S.P. et al. Ospa ovets v Tadzhikistane [Sheep pox in Tajikistan]. - Veterinariya. - Moscow, 2003 (6). - pp. 12-14.
15. Spisok MEB i transgranichnye infektsii zhivotnykh [List of OIE and transboundary animal infections]. - Vladimir, 2012: 76-82.
16. Surgucheva L.M., Borovoy V.N., Kolomytsev S.A. Epizooticheskaya situatsiya po sotsialno znachimym i osobo opasnym boleznyam zhivotnykh v Rossiyskoy Federatsii za 2012 goda [Epizootic situation in socially significant and especially dangerous animal diseases in the Russian Federation in 2012]. - 2013.
17. Turaev R.A. Epizootologicheskiy monitoring ospy melkogo rogatogo skota v Respublike Tadzhikistan i ee spetsificheskaya profilaktika [Epizootological monitoring of smallpox of small ruminants in the Republic of Tajikistan and its specific prevention]. - Dushanbe, 2012: 26 p.
18. Chernykh O.Yu., Shevkoplyas V.N., Mishchenko A.V., Mishchenko V.A., Dzhailidi G.A., Krivonos R.A., Dresvyannikova S.G., Shevchenko A.A., Konovalov M.R. Osobennosti klinicheskogo proyavleniya kontagioznogo pustuleznogo dermatita (kontagioznaya ektima) ovets i koz) [Features of clinical manifestation of contagious pustular dermatitis (contagious ecthyma) of sheep and goats]. - Veterinaria Kubani. - Krasnodar, 2016 (5). - pp. 4-7.
19. Shevkoplyas V.N., Borovoy V.N., Barsukov Yu.I. et al. Epizooticheskaya situatsiya po sotsialno znachimym i osobo opasnym boleznyam zhivotnykh v Rossiyskoy Federatsii za 2016 god [Epizootic situation for socially significant and especially dangerous animal diseases in the Russian Federation in 2016]. - Biznes Partner. - Moscow, 2017. - pp. 22-25.
20-31. Vide supra.
Mishchenko Aleksey V., Ph.D. in Veterinary Medicine, senior scientific researcher of the information analysis center of the Federal Centre of Animal Health; mcrd. Yurjevets, Vladimir, Russia, 600901; phone: 8-4922-261551; e-mail: email@example.com.
Mishchenko Vladimir A., D.Sc. in Veterinary Medicine, professor, chief scientific researcher of the Laboratory of the prevention of diseases of pigs and horned cattle of the Federal Centre of Animal Health; mcrd. Yurjevets, Vladimir, Russia, 600901; phone: 8-4922-261551; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Karaulov Anton K., Ph.D. in Veterinary Medicine, Head of the information analysis center of the Federal Centre of Animal Health; mcrd. Yurjevets, Vladimir, Russia, 600901; phone: 8-4922-529967; e-mail: email@example.com.
Petrova Olga N., Ph.D. in Biology, senior scientific researcher of the Federal Centre of Animal Health; mcrd. Yurjevets, Vladimir, Russia, 600901.
Krivonos Roman A., Ph.D. in Veterinary Medicine, head of the Veterinary Department of Krasnodar region; 36, Rashpilevskaya st., Krasnodar, 350000; phone: 8-861-2622869; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Responsible for correspondence with the editorial board: Chernykh Oleg Yu., D.Sc. in Veterinary Medicine, director of the Kropotkin regional veterinary laboratory; 303, Krasnoarmeyskaya st., Kropotkin, 352380; phone: 8-918-4956659; e-mail: email@example.com.